California

California has been home to multiple Fuqra/MOA villages, with at least one remaining outside Los Angeles. Fuqra/MOA is believed to be responsible for an attack on a Hare Krishna temple on August 31, 1979 and an attack on the Islamic Cultural Center of San Diego on January 11, 1991.[1]

A counter-terrorism raid in 1991 on a MOA enclave in Texas showed that MOA terror suspects had conducted surveillance of a post office building and the Greenhead Station in Los Angeles.[2]

MOA had a massive compound near Fresno named “Baladullah” until it was abandoned in 2002 after MOA’s massive charter school scam in California was discovered.

The dismantling of Fuqra/MOA’s 440-acre “Baladullah” compound in Miramonte, Fresno County and its associated Gateway Academy charter school scam did not end the group’s presence in the state. The California Attorney General listed Fuqra as one of the international terrorist groups that continues to impact the state in 2008.[3]

Islamic Village Near Los Angeles

MOA Executive Director Hussain Adams said in a 2014 deposition that the group has a “village” near Los Angeles.[4]

In a letter from 2001 or 2002, the Colorado Attorney General said that Fuqra is operating a Quranic Open University office in Los Angeles and that it has received over $1.5 million in charter school funding over the past two years. It warned that a Fuqra “training compound” is believed to exist in California.[5]

Hesperia/Victorville Presence

Internal MOA documents show that a MOA sub-section, the Banaatun-Nur, had a headquarters in Hesperia and asked the Sultan of Brunei for $1 million for service projects.

The Sultan of Brunei is an Islamist extremist who sparked international controversy in 2014 when his phased implementation of theocratic Sharia Law escalated to outlawing homosexuality. Celebrities like Jay Leno and Ellen DeGeneres protested and vowed to boycott hotels and other companies that the Sultan had a significant financial stake in.

The Hesperia site was based out of a leased youth camp that was used by Baptist Christians. The property manager said that the tenants said they were going to use the site as a shelter for children and families facing hardship. Several dozen people suddenly began living there and neighbors began reporting hearing gunfire from the property.

Local officials found that the site violated various building and safety codes. The site was abandoned in 1993 when they were about to be evicted for failing to pay rent.[6]

Declassified documents a Naval Criminal Investigative Service investigation in 2003-2004 show that MOA had a community at that time in Hesperia/Victorville. It is unclear if it is still in existence and, if so, if this is the “village” that MOA says it has near Los Angeles.

Reported Oak Hill Camp

A 2004 report funded by the Justice Department identifies Oak Hill, Oakland as being the location of a “training compound” for MOA.[7] A Gateway Academy charter school operated in Oakland until it was shut down.[8]

 “Medinatul Muslimeen,” Compton, CA

Fuqra/MOA used to have an “Islamic village” named “Medinatul Muslimeen” in Compton, California in the 1980s. A senior MOA official, Abdullah Abdul Baqi (born John Dudley Jones), was the director of the Quranic Open University registered to the land at 1230 South Wilmington Avenue.[9] The FBI described the site as an “encampment.”

Residents of the camp had “operational involvement” in various terrorist plots, according to a law enforcement report. These plots included the murder of a cleric from the rival Ahmadiyya sect in Michigan and the murder of a man in Ohio.

Two Fuqra terrorists died while carrying out a firebombing in Michigan on August 8, 1983, targeting the Ahmadiyya sect. They were “acting on behalf and at the direction of the Fuqra and Shiekh Jilani, the religious leader,” according to the FBI.

The land for a new camp near Barstow was purchased by Baqi and two other Fuqra/MOA members on September 9; one month after the attack. The Compton camp was then abandoned. The authorities found phone numbers linked to the Compton camp on one of the deceased terrorists.

The Compton camp site was also linked to Fuqra terrorist Stephen Paul Paster, using the alias of Atif Abdul Farouq. He was let out of prison in 1990 for bombing the Rajneesh Hotel in Portland, Oregon and is suspected of carrying out two bombings in Seattle in 1984. Camp residents were also linked to the murder of a man named Musa Al-Barr in Akron, Ohio, on March 7, 1977.

The Compton camp residents moved to a new site near Barstow, California.

Camp Near Barstow, San Bernardino County

The 10-acre MOA camp near Barstow only existed for about one year after Medinatul Muslimeen in Compton was abandoned. The unidentified follow-up site was also abandoned around June 1986.[10]

On February 1, 1984, the San Bernardino Sheriff’s Office responded to reports from neighbors about rifles being fired in the desert around the camp near Barstow. The police discovered the camp and found .233 caliber rounds. The residents denied firing any weapons.

On September 4, 1984, the Sheriff’s Office went to the camp to serve them with an eviction notice for failing to comply with health regulations. The police discovered it was hastily abandoned and the residents moved a few miles away.

The evacuation happened so quickly and unexpectedly that the MOA camp residents left behind crucial evidence. Among the items were pictures of Abdullah Baqi, the leader of the Medinatul Muslimeen camp in Compton, with Fuqra bomber Stephen Paul Paster.

The police found a newspaper article about the kidnapping and murder of a man named Musa Al-Barr in Akron, Ohio on February 23, 1983, with a separate piece of paper describing how was done. The paper indicated that the perpetrators were acting on behalf of a man named “Malik.” A confidential source told law enforcement that the name is referring to Karim Abdul Malik Zahir, born as Bruce Carlton Conley, who lived at the Compton camp.

There was evidence that Zahir was also connected to the Fuqra attacks targeting the Ahmadiyya sect in Michigan. Surveillance photos were found at the Barstow camp of the murdered Ahmadi cleric’s home and his mosque.

Zahir was the imam of the Mosque of the Dawn in Akron, Ohio. It originally was part of the Dar Ul-Islam movement, which splintered and a faction followed Sheikh Gilani and became Fuqra/MOA. At the time of his death, Musa Al-Barr was an officer of Zahir’s mosque. MOA publications in the 1990s would later deny involvement in Barr’s death, claiming he was killed by a Zionist conspiracy out to harm Gilani’s image and suppress Islam.

The police also discovered at the Barstow camp that MOA had apparently planned attacks on Shiite Muslims in Michigan. There were surveillance photos of a Shiite-owned shop for automobile parts in Highland Park, where Fuqra had a presence in an apartment building.

On November 30, 1984, Baqi and another Fuqra member from the Compton compound were arrested in Los Angeles during a routine stop by the police. An AR-7, .22-caliber survival rifle with a 20” silencer and 4×32 scope and a police scanner and camping gear was discovered inside their vehicle. The pair denied knowing that the items were there and denied having any knowledge of Sheikh Gilani.

It was learned that Baqi was a gun custodian/security guard with a Fuqra front in Brooklyn known as Dagger Investigative Services. He was an employee there from 1977 to 1980.

The California Fuqra may have tried to sabotage a substation near Redding in 1984, the year that Baqi was arrested.

Interestingly, when the authorities raided Fuqra sites between 1989 and 1992, they found notes on how to covertly attack power stations. The operatives had newspaper articles about some of the attacks they participated in.

The Colorado Fuqra kept a newspaper article dated March 2, 1984, about a “mysterious blackout” in California. It reported that something had caused a breaker in a substation near Redding in California to come open, but there was no evidence of tampering. Preparations in response to previous blackouts limited the damage from the circuit failure. MOA has had a presence in the Redding area.

There was also an article about an “unusual event” at a nuclear power plant in Ohio and other articles and notes that caused suspicions that Fuqra was involved in a fire that was sparked at a Leetsdale power station on February 1, 1985.[11]

Baladullah, Miramonte, Fresno County

Fuqra/Muslims of the Americas had a massive commune in Miramonte near Fresno, CA named “Baladullah.” The compound had mobile homes, a U-Haul business, a school and reportedly a small airstrip.[12] It was also the headquarters for the Gateway Academy charter school scam.

At least 300-400 followers of Sheikh Gilani lived there, but MOA claimed there was less than 100. Fuqra operated an online book store through the location named Zavia Books for publishing Sheikh Gilani’s propaganda.[13]

Senior MOA official Khadijah Ghafur formed the Heritage Development Corporation in 1996, ostensibly to provide social services to Muslim women and children. The organization then bought the 440 acres that became Baladullah for about $750,000. She then formed the Gateway Academy school and its charter was approved in October 1998.[14]

A secret videotape produced by Shiekh Gilani in the early 1990s to advertise his jihad training in Pakistan and Kashmir shows an individual sitting next to him who he identifies as Saleh Abdul-Ghafur, the name of Khadijah Ghafur’s husband and a founder of Baladullah. Gilani tells viewers to contact the founders of MOA like Ghafur to sign up for the guerilla warfare training.

The Baladullah commune attempted to hide its indisputable connection to Sheikh Gilani and Fuqra/Muslims of the Americas. Their attorney, Doug Hurt, responded to questions about the link by saying, “In that they are Muslims and they are in America, I would say so, but are they formally connected, is there an entity—no, not as far as I am aware.”[15]

Neighbors reported frequently hearing gunfire coming from the compound in the afternoon and late at night. One neighbor said it alternated between sounding like target practice and automatic gunfire.[16] The California Attorney General confirmed that neighbors heard automatic gunfire and explosions coming from the site.[17]

Law enforcement personnel confirmed to a local ABC News reporter that gunfire could be heard coming from Baladullah and that there are guards at the entrances to intercept visitors. Neighbors reported seeing armed patrols on the perimeter of the property. The neighbors disagreed that the gunfire could be explained away as the sound of innocent hunting.

According to Lawrence Martines, the former chief of Nevada’s department of homeland security, locals reported “loud and extensive gunfire” coming from the site. He continues:

“Upon inspection of the site by local sheriff’s personnel, it was revealed that the compound in question was occupied by a hundred or so Afro-American men, women and children. The occupants professed to be of the fundamentalist Islamic faith and were merely living apart from the surrounding kufrs (non-Muslim infidels) to avoid cultural pollution while embracing religious peace and solitude.

A concern of the sheriff’s personnel examining the site was not the ‘mosque’ or heavily patrolled grounds, but the crude yet extensive weapons range for both pistol and rifle use found within the camp grounds.”[18]

A law enforcement source who visited the compound after it was raided that there were bunkers for ammunition storage, shooting ranges and an area for explosives training. He said that huge stacks of ammunition casings were hauled away by the authorities.

The founding director of the Sankore Institute for Islamic-African Studies, Sheikh Muhammad Shareef, says that he visited the MOA compound in California known as “Baladullah” before it was abandoned in 2002. He recalls:

“When I met some of them at their ‘town’ east of Fresno, California, I saw drug addiction among some of the elders and their youngest teenagers roaming around aimlessly. There was no school that I could see and most of the living quarters lacked basic amenities.

The last news I received regarding some of the California Fuqara is that they had been ordered by their spiritual or scholarly authorities in Pakistan to sell heroin on the streets of the U.S. as some kind of twisted take on jihad. The logic behind their arguments fell to pieces when it became clear that the local police confined their drug activity to the Black Belt, and their market was their own people—the very people who needed the invitation of Islam and to answer the call of Allah.

The fact that these African-American Muslim families could not see that those in Pakistan to whom they owed allegiance did not have their or their people’s best interest at heart, is astounding to me.”[19]

Pictures from inside Baladullah show numerous vehicles with bulletholes, indicating they were used for target practice. The action mirrors pictures from Islamberg in New York that showed bulletholes in a school bus. MOA said that the school bus had been vandalized and denied that it was used for target practice.

Another picture from Baladullah shows a blackboard with the words, “If you are in range I will shoot” and “I will win bet on it!!!!”

A local reporter investigating Baladullah and the Gateway Academy scam described how he was closely watched, denied entry and followed. He spoke to one resident who said that Fuqra was falsely labeled as terrorists and extremists because “those who believe in Islam are labeled as terrorists.”

He said that MOA stands behind those who “fight for the right to practice religion free from Zionists and free of oppression from the Zionist media.” He also said, “we support Muslims all around the world if they are fighting for their right to be Muslims and to live in peace” without “Zionist influence.”

The Baladullah member claimed that American public schools are atheistic and “force the secular one-world religion on you.”

Gateway Academy Charter School Scam

Senior Fuqra operative Khadijah Ghafur (born as Deanna Moton and with another alias of Deanna Baqi), a very close associate of Sheikh Gilani’s, was convicted in 2006 for running a massive charter school scam involving a dozen schools under the name of the Gateway Academy. At least $1.3 million in state funding went missing.

The president and treasurer of MOA was listed at the Baladullah commune where Gateway Academy’s headquarters was located. Garfur was simultaneously the president of Gateway and the official secretary for MOA.[20] She was also the wife of the aforementioned Abdullah Baqi.

Ghafur converted to Islam in college and claims to have organized the delivery of medicine and clothes to refugees in Kashmir and Bosnia. In 1995, she was the president of an organization based in Fresno named the Women International Network.

In 2001, she donated $1,000 to the Republican Party to attend a fundraiser featuring President Bush. However, just one year prior, she filed for bankruptcy and claimed to only be earning $1,123 per month.

The Gateway Academy charter was approved of in October 1998. It received its first $250,000 grant from the state in 2000 and reported enrolling 200 students at two schools in Fresno in the 2000-2001 school year.[21]

There were a dozen Gateway campuses, including three in Oakland, Sunnyvale and Pimona that the oversight authorities were not informed about. The authorities overseeing charter schools thought that only a few were opening and were surprised when they learned of new satellite schools opening without approval.[22] The size of the operation and distance between the schools made it extremely difficult to conduct oversight.

Reporters were initially denied access to the schools. A local reporter was only allowed in once authorities informed them that they were legally required to grant access.

MOA presented the charter schools as secular and one spokesperson even chuckled at the notion that they were Islamic schools. They were then discovered to be giving Islamic religious studies. Their attorney also denied links to Sheikh Gilani or any extremist organization, including Fuqra.

Gateway Academy reported having 1,200 enrolled students in 2002-2003, entitling it to $5.5 million in state funding. It spent $1 million in taxpayer money setting up the schools.[23] Gateway lost its charter school contract in January 2002 for many different violations.[24]

The authorities raided a Gateway school in Sunnyvale for illegally charging tuition and teaching Islam. Investigators saw evidence that significant amounts of the school bank account were being inexplicably taken out, the school was hiring convicted felons and lying about the number of students enrolled in order to receive more state funding.

Gateway fraudulently received at least $1.3 million in total. Gateway said it expected a student enrollment of 1,200 students for the next year and could have received $5.6 million if the prosecution hadn’t happened.

Three Gateway officials—Superintendent Khadijah Ghafur, chief administrative officer Naazim Hamed and board member Kehinde Solwazi—were arrested in November 2004.[25]

Ghafur was found guilty of misappropriation of public funds, grand theft by embezzlement, theft by false pretenses, failing to file a tax return and filing a false tax return.[26] She then sued the school district for $6.5 million claiming that the revocation of Gateway Academy’s contract was due to Islamophobia.[27]

It is believed that Ghafur funneled money stolen through the scam to Sheikh Gilani in Pakistan.

In 2002, a senior Pakistani police officer in Lahore said that Shiekh Gilani had received a “huge amount of money” from California.[28]

The investigation found that Ghafur send money in increments of $5,000 to Salih Ghafur, who she claims she divorced, while he was in Islamabad, Pakistan. A search of her house found evidence indicating the money went to Sheikh Gilani, including letters to Gilani about her overseeing of an “Abu Ji Fund.” MOA members affectionately refer to Gilani as “Abu” or “Abu Ji,” with “Abu” meaning “father.”

A letter to Gilani explained how she was overseeing a network of businesses aimed at providing him with $5,000 monthly for a “steady cash flow to you.” It seems to acknowledge deceptive and criminal activity as it says, “I can’t afford a verified paper trail against me that would stop my service and dedication to you.”[29]

Killing of Deputy Erik Telen on August 21, 2001

On August 21, 2001, MOA member Ramadan Abdur-Rauf Abdullah, shot Deputy Erik Telen of the Fresno County Sheriff’s Department in the face with a shotgun, killing him. Abdullah attempted to use the insanity defense and failed.[30]

The incident began when Robert Gregory of Dunlap discovered Abdullah hiding in his treehouse. Abdullah said he was sick and asked for food and a ride to the bus stop. Gregory refused and fled inside to get his gun when Abdullah kept coming closer to him. Abdullah walked towards the front door and briefly attempted to enter. He then went to the neighbor’s property, found a shotgun and used it on officers.

Ramadan Abdur-Rauf Abdullah was originally born in Brooklyn, N.Y. and lived in Binghamton, N.Y. before coming to Fresno, California. He also said he had lived in Michigan. His parents, Mahdi and Yasmeen Abdullah, were MOA members. He says that his father and paternal grandfather were police officers and that his father taught him firearm safety and occasionally brought him hunting.

He worked for Telespectrum in May 2000 and coworkers noticed odd behavior and more radical religious beliefs in the fall. He would say that the company would be destroyed by Allah just like Sodom and Gomorroah was for having homosexual employees and immoral behavior by coworkers. He quit June 29, 2001 and said he was leaving for religious reasons, such as the fact there were too many gays, witches and warlocks at the business.

Shortly thereafter in late June or early July, he attended a men’s retreat at Islamberg. His father says that he was called and told to come to the retreat immediately and saw Abdullah proclaiming to be Jesus, Son of Mary and demanding that other MOA members follow his orders. He later had another episode where he was found exhausted in tears in the Islamberg community center. His father brought him back to the family apartment in Binghamton.

Rather than send him to a legitimate doctor, his father decided that he would be treated with Sheikh Gilani’s Quranic Therapy. Abdullah then went to Baladullah in Fresno, California, where MOA member Uthman Aziz planned to treat him for 30 days.

After his arrest, he said his doctor is Sheikh Syed Mubarak Ali Gilani in Pakistan but that he had never met him in person. He said that he had an unknown illness and was living at the International Quranic Open University in Baladullah, where Gilani’s Quranic Therapy was being administered to him up until the night before the murder. The therapy involved listening to audiotapes of Islamic verses and prayers and drinking water according to Gilani’s instructions.[31]

The Baladullah compound refused to give interviews to local ABC reporters after the murder took place.

Infiltration of Military Bases

The Naval Criminal Investigative Service investigated MOA infiltration of the Naval Air Station Lemoore in Fresno and Kings Counties and Fort Irwin in San Bernardino County.

Declassified documents from 2003-2004 refer to two long-time MOA members as working at the Resident Office in Charge of Construction at the NAS Lemoore base. The files explicitly refer to Fuqra/MOA as a “terrorist group.”

The first MOA member of concern was/is the housing contract officer who awards and adjusts contracts related to new housing projects and a new community center. She previously lived in Hesperia, Victorville, Miramonte, Adelanto and Philadelphia. As mentioned, the first three cities were the locations of MOA camps.

A co-worker described her as a “sweetheart” but confirmed that she lived at an Islamic “charter community” in Fresno, matching the Baladullah camp. The co-worker said that the MOA member’s husband used to teach at that compound.

The only noteworthy observation that the co-worker could make about the MOA member is that she always kept a change of clothes in case she had to stay at the base overnight in the event of an emergency. The co-worker said that she assumed that the MOA member got that idea from previously working for the Army.

The investigators warned that the MOA member could potentially be taking kickbacks or fraudulently obtaining money from the U.S. Navy to finance MOA or its overseas leaders.

The second MOA member working at the Resident Office in Charge of Construction at the base had an ex-wife and stepson under investigation by the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force.

The heavily-redacted files appear to indicate that a third MOA member used to work on the base for a brief time. It is possible that this apparent third MOA member is actually the second member; a confusion potentially caused by one file mistakenly referring to him as currently working on the base.

The files say that this individual worked at the communications center at NAS LeMoore and installed telephone wiring for the Resident Office in Charge of Construction around 2000-2001 as an employee of Avaya Communications in Fresno. This same individual installed wiring at the Baladullah compound.

This MOA member of concern also worked at Fort Irwin National Training Center in San Bernardino County around 2000 as a contract administrator with the acquisitions command. This person would have a vehicle pass issued by the Department of Defense.

At least one of the MOA members of concern is part of the Hesperia/Victorville community that existed then (and possibly now) and phone records showed communication between the person’s home and the Middle East.

The files refer to an individual as being the “Khalifa” of the MOA community in Hesperia/Victorville. The files indicate that this person was the former owner and operator of the Gateway charter schools and started Red Hawk Transportation and Taxi Service in Hesperia in October 2002.

Other Criminal Activity

Documents from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service in 2003 refer to a meeting of multiple agencies regarding MOA in April 2003 to compare activity at multiple MOA compounds, including one at Fresno, California.

The agencies said all the compounds are interconnected and have members involved in criminal scams “to raise money for MOA/JAF.” The scams include but are not limited to insurance fraud, mail fraud, credit card fraud, worker’s compensation fraud, illegal straw purchases of weapons, conversions of semi-automatic weapons to fully-automatic, etc.

The money is sent via mail orders to the “Islamberg” headquarters in New York and Lahore, Pakistan and ultimately ends up with Sheikh Gilani.

One file says, “MOA members from all compounds also travel to Pakistan for both religious education as well as military style training and operational experience fighting in the Kashmir region of Pakistan.”

In March 2001, MOA member James Hobson, who lived at Baladullah, was arrested for weapons trafficking between New York and South Carolina.[32] Hobson was arrested in 1999 for providing firearms to felons. He was also an employee of the Gateway Academy; the MOA charter school scam in California.

In November 2004, MOA member Tabari Malik Shabir, a resident of Baladullah, was arrested near “Islamville” in South Carolina for drug trafficking. He shipped at least 52 kilos of cocaine from Oakland, California to Atlanta, Georgia and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He had been a fugitive for seven months.

Links to Other Islamist Groups

Khadijah Ghafur was the Fresno regional representative of the American Muslim Alliance. Its President, Agha Saeed, said he met Ghafur at a conference in 1997.[33] The American Muslim Alliance is an Islamist group accused of having links to the Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Pakistani intelligence.[34]


[1] Al-Fuqra: Holy Warriors of Terrorism.” (1993). Anti-Defamation League: http://archive.adl.org/extremism/moa/al-fuqra.pdf

[2] Mauro, Ryan. (2014). Exclusive: Islamist Terror Enclave Discovered in Texas. Clarion Project. http://www.clarionproject.org/analysis/exclusive-clarion-project-discovers-texas-terror-enclave

[3] “Organized Crime in California 2007-2008: Annual Report to the Legislature,” Office of Attorney General Edmund C. Brown, Jr.

[4] The Muslims of America Inc. V. Martin Mawyer (N.D.N.Y. April 30, 2014).

[5] Memo to National Association of Attorneys General and FBI Denver field office. Colorado Attorney General’s Office.

[6] Sean Webb and Brandon Bailey. (2002). Cleric’s Followers Have Hopscotched Across California. Knight Ridder.

[7] Kane, John and April Wall. “Identifying the Links Between White-Collar Crime and Terrorism,” National White Collar Crime Center, September 2004. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/209520.pdf

[8] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[9] Declassified law enforcement report.

[10] Declassified law enforcement report.

[11] Al-Fuqra: Holy Warriors of Terrorism.” (1993). Anti-Defamation League: http://archive.adl.org/extremism/moa/al-fuqra.pdf

[12] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[13] Noyes, Dan. (2007). ABC7 News. YouTube: Fuqra Member Sentenced for California Charter School Scam to Fund Gilani: https://youtu.be/Nb1Blzq7_4E

[14] People V. Khadijah Ghafur

[15] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[16] Noyes, Dan. (2007). ABC7 News. YouTube: Fuqra Member Sentenced for California Charter School Scam to Fund Gilani: https://youtu.be/Nb1Blzq7_4E

[17] “Organized Crime in California 2007-2008: Annual Report to the Legislature,” Office of Attorney General Edmund C. Brown, Jr.

[18] Martines, Lawrence J. (2010). Jam’at Al-Fuqra, a.k.a. Society of the Impoverished. Journal of Counterterrorism and Homeland Security International. Vo. 8, No. 3.

[19] The Decisive Solution: A Research Paper Submitted by Shaykh Muhammad Shareef bin Farid. (2015). Sankore Institute of Islamic-African Studies: The Palace of the Sultan of Maiurno. http://siiasi.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/the_decisive_solution-updated.pdf

[20] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[21] People V Khadijah Ghafur

[22] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[23] Noyes, Dan. (2003). ABC7 News. Found in a House congressional record, September 5, 2003.

[24] Melley, Brian. (2002). Fresno Orders Charter School Closed. Midland Daily News. http://www.ourmidland.com/news/article/Fresno-Orders-Charter-School-Closed-7083998.php

[25] May, Meredith. (2004). Charter school chiefs held in finance probe. San Francisco Gate. http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/CALIFORNIA-Charter-school-chiefs-held-in-2632851.php

[26] Noyes, Dan. (2007). ABC7 News. YouTube: Fuqra Member Sentenced for California Charter School Scam to Fund Gilani: https://youtu.be/Nb1Blzq7_4E

[27] May, Meredith. (2004). Charter school chiefs held in finance probe. San Francisco Gate. http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/CALIFORNIA-Charter-school-chiefs-held-in-2632851.php

[28] Brandon Baily and Sean Webby. (2002). U.S. Focuses Attention on Rural Muslim Group. San Jose Mercury News.

[29] Brandon Bailey and Sean Webby. (2007). Isolated Enclave. Mercury News. http://www.mercurynews.com/2007/02/11/isolated-enclave/

[30] People V. Ramadan Abdur-Rauf Abdullah

[31] People V. Ramadan Abdur-Rauf Abdullah

[32] Sean Webby, Karen de Sa and Brandon Bailey. (2001). Muslim Enclave in California Draws Suspicion from FBI. Associated Press. http://lang.sbsun.com/socal/terrorist/1201/25/terror15.asp

[33] Sean Webby, Karen de Sa and Brandon Bailey. (2001). Muslim Enclave in California Draws Suspicion from FBI. Associated Press. http://lang.sbsun.com/socal/terrorist/1201/25/terror15.asp

[34] Shankar, Abha. (2016). IPT Exclusive: Document Reveals Omar Mateen’s Father Tied to Radical Islamist Groups. Investigative Project on Terrorism. http://www.investigativeproject.org/5447/document-reveals-omar-mateen-father-tied-to#

 

 


 

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